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Chapter 2 Terms to Know
Below are the terms & their meanings that you need to commit to memory for Ch.2.
1. Rostral / anterior structures are located toward the head within the body region or the front of the skull within the head region.
2. Caudal / posterior structures are located toward the tail (feet in humans) within the body region or the rear of the skull within the head region.
3. Dorsal / superior structures are located toward the back within the body region or the top of the skull within the head region.
4. Ventral / inferior structures are located toward the belly within the body region or the bottom of the skull within the head region.
5. Midline imaginary line that divides the body into two equal halves
6. Ipsilateral structures are on the same side of the midline, and contralateral structures are on opposite sides of the midline.
7. Structures near the midline are medial, and structures away from the midline are lateral.
8. In limbs, proximal structures are closer to the body center, and distal structures are farther away.
9. Coronal sections divide the brain from front to back (parallel to the face) in a vertically cut plane as if from ear to ear.
10. Sagittal sections are parallel to the midline and give us a "side" view of the brain in a vertically cut plane as if from the front to back of the head. A special sagittal section cut direction on the midline of the brain is called a midsagittal section (divides brain into 2 approximately equal halves). This is a common view used to describe the corpus callosum, the brainstem and midbrain structures, and the ventricle system.
11. Horizontal / axial sections divide the brain from top to bottom in a plane that is parallel to the floor in a human standing upright.
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